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It also has vast mineral resources. Kazakhstan is officially a democratic, secular, sex Kazakistan, constitutional republic with a diverse cultural heritage. The terrain of Kazakhstan includes flatlands, steppetaigarock canyonshillsdeltassnow-capped mountainsand deserts.

Kazakhstan has an estimated The capital is Nur-Sultan until Astanasex Kazakistan it was moved in from Almaty sex Kazakistan, the country's largest city. The territory sex Kazakistan Kazakhstan has historically been inhabited by sex Kazakistan groups and empires. In antiquity, the nomadic Scythians have inhabited the land and the Persian Achaemenid Empire expanded towards the southern territory of the modern country.

Turkic nomads who trace their ancestry to many Turkic states such as Turkic Khaganate etc. In the 13th century, the territory joined the Mongolian Empire under Genghis Khan. By the 16th century, the Kazakh emerged as a distinct group, divided into three jüz ancestor branches occupying specific territories. The Russians began advancing into the Kazakh steppe in the 18th century, and by the midth century, they nominally ruled all of Kazakhstan as part of the Russian Empire. Following the Russian Revolutionand subsequent sex Kazakistan warthe territory of Kazakhstan was reorganised several times.

Kazakhstan was the last of the Soviet republics to declare independence sex Kazakistan the dissolution of the Soviet Union in Nursultan Nazarbayevthe first President of Kazakhstanwas characterized as an authoritarian, and his government was accused of numerous human rights violations, including suppression of dissent and censorship of the media. The name "Kazakh" comes from the ancient Turkic word qaz"to wander", reflecting the Kazakhs' nomadic culture.

Though traditionally referring only to ethnic Kazakhsincluding those living in China, Russia, Turkey, Uzbekistan and other neighbouring countries, the term "Kazakh" is increasingly being used to refer to any inhabitant of Kazakhstan, including non-Kazakhs. Kazakhstan has been inhabited since the Paleolithic. The Kazakh territory was a key constituent of the Sex Kazakistan Steppe routethe ancestor of the terrestrial Silk Roads. Archaeologists believe that humans first domesticated the horse i.

During recent prehistoric times Central Asia was inhabited by groups like the possibly Proto-Indo-European Afanasievo sex Kazakistan[26] later early Indo-Iranians cultures such as Andronovo[27] and later Indo-Iranians such as the Saka and Massagetae. The Cuman entered the steppes of modern-day Kazakhstan around the early 11th century, where they later joined with the Kipchak and established the vast Cuman-Kipchak confederation.

While ancient cities Taraz Aulie-Ata and Hazrat-e Turkestan had long served as sex Kazakistan way-stations along the Silk Road connecting Asia and Europe, true political sex Kazakistan began only with the Mongol rule of the early 13th century. Under sex Kazakistan Mongol Sex Kazakistanthe largest in world history, administrative districts were established. These eventually came under the rule of the emergent Kazakh Khanate Kazakhstan. Throughout this period, traditional nomadic life and a livestock -based economy continued to dominate the steppe.

In the 15th century, a distinct Kazakh identity began to emerge among sex Kazakistan Turkic tribes, a process which was consolidated by the midth century with the appearance of the Kazakh languageculture, and economy.

Nevertheless, the region was the focus of ever-increasing disputes between the native Kazakh emirs and the neighbouring Persian-speaking peoples sex Kazakistan the south. At its height, the Khanate would rule parts of Central Asia and control Cumania. By the early 17th century, sex Kazakistan Kazakh Khanate was struggling with the impact sex Kazakistan tribal rivalries, which had effectively divided the population into the Great, Middle sex Kazakistan Little or Small hordes jüz.

Political disunion, tribal rivalries, and the diminishing importance of overland trade routes between east and west weakened the Kazakh Khanate. Khiva Khanate used this opportunity and annexed Mangyshlak Peninsula. Uzbek rule there lasted two centuries until the Russian arrival. During the 17th century, the Kazakhs fought Oiratsa federation of western Mongol tribes, including the Dzungar. During sex Kazakistan period the Little Horde participated in the — war against the Dzungar Khanatefollowing their "Great Disaster" invasion of Kazakh territories.

Ablai Khan participated in the most significant battles against the Dzungar from the s to the s, for which he was declared a " batyr " "hero" by the people. The Kazakh suffered from the frequent raids against them by the Volga Kalmyk.

The Kokand Khanate used the weakness of Kazakh jüzs after Sex Kazakistan and Kalmyk raids and conquered present Sex Kazakistan Kazakhstan, including Almatythe formal capital in the first quarter sex Kazakistan the 19th century. Also, the Emirate of Bukhara ruled Shymkent before the Russians took dominance. In the first half of the 18th century the Russian Empire constructed the Irtysh line, a series of forty-six forts sex Kazakistan ninety-six redoubts, including OmskSemipalatinskPavlodarOrenburg and Petropavlovsk[32] to prevent Kazakh and Oirat raids into Russian territory.

The " Great Sex Kazakistan " period is generally regarded as running from sex Kazakistan to the Anglo-Russian Convention of The tsars effectively ruled over most of the territory belonging to what is now the Republic of Kazakhstan. The Russian Empire introduced a system of administration and built military garrisons and sex Kazakistan in its effort to establish a presence in Central Asia in the sex Kazakistan "Great Game" for dominance in the area against the British Empirewhich was extending its influence from the south in India and Southeast Asia.

Russia built its first outpost, Orskin Russia introduced the Russian language sex Kazakistan all schools and governmental organisations. Russian efforts sex Kazakistan impose its system aroused the resentment by the Kazakh peopleand, by the s, some Kazakhs resisted Russia's rule. It had disrupted the traditional nomadic lifestyle and livestock-based economy, and people were suffering from hunger and starvation, with some Kazakh tribes being decimated.

The Kazakh national movement, which began in the late 19th century, sought to preserve the native language and identity by resisting the attempts of the Sex Kazakistan Empire to assimilate and stifle them. From the s onward, ever-larger numbers of settlers from the Russian Empire began colonising the territory of present-day Kazakhstan, in particular, the province of Semirechye.

The number of settlers rose still further once the Trans-Aral Railway from Orenburg to Tashkent was completed in Petersburg oversaw sex Kazakistan encouraged the migration to expand Russian influence in the area. During the 19th century aboutRussians immigrated to Kazakhstan, and about sex Kazakistan million Slavs, Germans, Jews, and others immigrated to the region during the first third of the 20th century.

The competition for land and water that sex Kazakistan between the Kazakh and the newcomers caused great resentment against colonial rule sex Kazakistan the final years of the Sex Kazakistan Empire. The most serious sex Kazakistan, the Central Asian Revoltoccurred in The Kazakh attacked Russian and Cossack settlers and military garrisons. The revolt resulted in a series of clashes and in brutal massacres committed by both sides. Soviet repression of sex Kazakistan traditional elite, along with forced collectivisation in the late s and s, brought famine and high fatalities, leading to unrest see also: Famine in Kazakhstan of — The republic was one of the destinations for exiled and convicted persons, as well as for mass resettlements, or deportations affected by the central USSR authorities during the s and s, such as approximatelyVolga Germans deported from the Volga German Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in September—Octoberand then later sex Kazakistan Greeks and Crimean Tatars.

Deportees and prisoners were interned in some of the biggest Soviet labour camps the Sex Kazakistanincluding ALZhIR camp outside Astana, which was reserved for the wives of men considered "enemies of the people".

The Soviet-German War sex Kazakistan led sex Kazakistan an increase in industrialisation and mineral extraction in support of the war effort. InSoviet leader Nikita Khrushchev initiated the Virgin Lands Campaign designed to turn the traditional pasturelands of Kazakhstan into a major sex Kazakistan region for the Soviet Union. The Virgin Lands policy brought mixed results. However, along with later modernisations under Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev in power —it accelerated the development of the agricultural sector, which remains the source of livelihood for a large percentage of Kazakhstan's population.

Inthe USSR government, as part of its sex Kazakistan bomb projectfounded an atomic bomb test site near the north-eastern town of Semipalatinskwhere the first Soviet nuclear bomb test was conducted in Hundreds of nuclear tests were conducted until and had negative ecological and biological consequences. Governmental troops suppressed the unrest, several people sex Kazakistan killed, and many demonstrators were jailed. In the waning sex Kazakistan of Soviet rule, discontent continued to grow and found expression under Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev 's policy of glasnost.

On 25 OctoberKazakhstan declared its sovereignty on its territory as sex Kazakistan republic within the Soviet Union. Following the August aborted coup attempt in Moscow, Kazakhstan declared independence on 16 Decemberthus becoming the sex Kazakistan Soviet republic to declare independence.

Ten days later, the Soviet Union itself ceased to exist. Kazakhstan's communist-era leader, Nursultan Nazarbayevbecame the country's first President. Emphasis was on converting the country's economy to a market economy while political reforms lagged behind achievements in the economy. Inthe government moved sex Kazakistan capital to Astana sex Kazakistan Nur-Sultan on 23 March from AlmatyKazakhstan's largest city, where it had been established under the Soviet Union.

As it extends across both sides of the Ural River sex Kazakistan, considered the dividing line with the European continent, Kazakhstan is one of only two landlocked countries in the world that has territory in two continents the other is Azerbaijan. While it was part of the Soviet UnionKazakhstan lost some of its territory to China's Xinjiang sex Kazakistan region [42] and some to Uzbekistan's Karakalpakstan autonomous republic.

While located primarily in Asia, a small portion of Kazakhstan is also located west of the Urals in Eastern Europe. Kazakhstan's terrain extends west to east from the Caspian Sea to the Altay Mountains and north to south from the plains of Western Siberia to the oases and deserts of Central Asia.

The steppe is characterised by large areas of grasslands and sandy regions. The steep canyon slopes, columns and arches rise to heights of between and metres and feet. The inaccessibility of the canyon provided sex Kazakistan safe haven for a rare ash treeFraxinus sogdiana, that survived the Ice Age and is now also grown in some other areas.

Kazakhstan has an abundant supply of accessible mineral and fossil fuel resources. According to some estimates, [44] Kazakhstan has the second largest uraniumchromiumleadand zinc reserves; the third largest manganese reserves; the fifth largest copper reserves; and ranks in the top ten for coalironand gold.

It is also an exporter of diamonds. Perhaps most significant for sex Kazakistan development, Kazakhstan also sex Kazakistan has the 11th largest proven reserves of both petroleum and natural gas. In total, there are deposits with over 2. Oil explorations have shown that sex Kazakistan deposits on the Caspian shore are only a small part of a much larger deposit.

It is said that 3. Overall the estimate of Kazakhstan's oil deposits is 6. However, there are only three refineries within the country, situated in Atyrau[46] Pavlodarand Shymkent. These are not capable of processing the total crude output, so much of it is exported to Russia. Kazakhstan also possesses large deposits of phosphorite. Kazakhstan has an "extreme" continental climatewith warm summers and very cold winters. Indeed, Nursultan sex Kazakistan the second coldest capital city in the world after Ulaanbaatar.

Precipitation varies between arid and semi-arid conditions, the winter being particularly dry. There are ten nature reserves and ten national parks in Kazakhstan that provide sex Kazakistan haven for many rare and endangered plants and animals. Common plants are AstragalusGageaAlliumCarex and Oxytropis ; endangered plant species include native wild apple Malus sieversiiwild grape Vitis vinifera and several wild tulip species e.

Tulipa greigii and rare onion species Sex Kazakistan karataviensealso Iris willmottiana and Tulipa kaufmanniana. Common mammals include the wolfred sex Kazakistancorsac foxmooseargali the largest species of sheepEurasian lynx sex Kazakistan, Pallas's catand snow leopardsseveral of which are protected. Kazakhstan's Red Book of Protected Species lists vertebrates including many birds and mammals, and plants including fungi, algae and lichen. Kazakhstan is a democratic, secular, constitutional unitary republic ; Nursultan Nazarbayev led the country from to