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The population of self-declared Poles in Poland is estimated at 37, out of an overall population of 38, based on the census[2] of whom 36, declared Polish alone. A wide-ranging Polish diaspora the Polonia exists throughout Europe, the Americas, and in Australasia.

Today, the largest urban concentrations of Poles are within the Warsaw and Silesian metropolitan areas. Poland's history dates back over a thousand years, to c. Slavs have been in the territory of modern Poland for over years. They organized into tribal unitsof which the larger ones were later known as the Polish tribes ; the names of many tribes are found on the list compiled by the anonymous Bavarian Geographer in the 9th century.

The last tribal undertaking resulted in the 10th century in a lasting political structure and statePolandone of the West Slavic nations. After the so-called "autochthonous" or "aboriginal" school of Polish prehistory received official backing in Poland and a considerable degree of popular support. Porno sesso Simferopol to this view, the Lusatian Culture porno sesso Simferopol archaeologists have identified between the Oder and the Vistula in the early Iron Ageis said to be Slavonic; all non-Slavonic tribes and peoples recorded in the area at various points in ancient times are dismissed as "migrants" and "visitors".

In contrast, the critics of this theory, such as Marija Gimbutasregard it as an unproved hypothesis and for them the date and origin of the westward migration of the Slavs is largely uncharted; the Slavonic connections of the Lusatian Culture are entirely imaginary; and the presence of an ethnically mixed and constantly changing collection of peoples on porno sesso Simferopol Middle European Plain is taken for granted.

Polish people are the sixth largest national group in the European Union. There are also Polish minorities in the surrounding countries including Germanyand indigenous minorities in the Czech RepublicHungarySlovakianorthern and eastern Lithuaniawestern Ukraineand western Belarus.

There are some smaller indigenous minorities in nearby countries such as Moldova. There is also a Polish minority in Russia which includes indigenous Poles as well as those forcibly deported during and after World War II ; the total number of Poles in what was the former Soviet Union is estimated at up to 3 million.

The term " Polonia " is usually used in Poland to refer to people of Polish origin who live outside Polish borders, officially estimated at around 10 to 20 million. France has a historic relationship with Poland and has a relatively large Polish-descendant population. Poles have lived in France since the 18th century. In the early 20th century, over a million Polish people settled in France, mostly during world wars, among them Polish émigrés fleeing either Nazi occupation or later Soviet rule.

The porno sesso Simferopol of Polish immigrants increased between andand again after the end of Communism in Poland in The city of Curitiba has the second largest Polish diaspora in the world porno sesso Simferopol Chicago and Polish musicdishes and culture are quite common in the region.

A recent large migration of Poles took place following Poland's accession to the European Union and opening of the EU's labor market; with an approximate number of 2 million, primarily young, Poles taking up jobs abroad. SincePoles have been able to work freely throughout the EU and not just in the United Kingdom, Ireland and Sweden where they have had full working rights since Poland's EU accession in The Polish community in Norway has increased substantially and has grown to a total number of , making Poles the largest immigrant group in Norway.

The culture of Poland has a history of years. Over time, Polish culture has been greatly influenced by its ties with the GermanicHungarianand Latinate world and other ethnic groups and minorities living in Poland.

A historical sketchstated that "Poland porno sesso Simferopol the fifteenth century was one of the most civilised states of Europe. In the porno sesso Simferopol and 20th centuries, the Polish focus on cultural advancement often took precedence over political and economic activity, experiencing severe crises, especially during World War II and in the following years. These factors have contributed to the versatile nature of Polish art, with all its complex nuances. Poland was for centuries a refuge to many Jews from all over Europe; in the twentieth century, a large number emigrated to Israel.

Its written form uses the Polish alphabetwhich is the Latin alphabet with the addition of porno sesso Simferopol few diacritic marks. Elsewhere, ethnic Poles constitute large minorities in Germanynorthern Slovakia and the Czech RepublicHungarynortheast Lithuania and western Belarus and Ukraine. In Ukraine it is most porno sesso Simferopol in the western Lviv porno sesso Simferopol Volyn oblast provincesporno sesso Simferopol in western Belarus it is used by the significant Polish minority, especially in the Brest and Grodno regions and in areas along the Lithuanian border.

The geographical distribution of the Polish language was greatly affected by the border changes and population transfers that followed World War II.

Poles resettled in the " Recovered Territories " in porno sesso Simferopol west and north. Some Poles remained porno sesso Simferopol the previously Polish-ruled territories in the east that were annexed by the USSRresulting in the present-day Polish-speaking minorities in LithuaniaBelarusand Ukrainealthough many Poles were expelled or emigrated from those areas to areas within Poland's new borders.

Meanwhile, the flight and expulsion of Germans, as well as the expulsion of Ukrainians and resettlement of Ukrainians within Poland, contributed to the country's linguistic homogeneity. Polish-speakers use the language in a uniform manner throughout most of Poland, though numerous languages and dialects coexist alongside the standard Polish language. The most common dialects in Poland are Silesianspoken in Upper Silesia, and Kashubianwidely spoken in the north.

Education has been of prime interest to Poland since the early 12th century. The catalog of the library of the Cathedral Chapter in Kraków dating from shows that Polish scholars already then had access to literature from all over Europe. The Polish people have porno sesso Simferopol considerable contributions in the fields of science, technology and mathematics. The list of early famous scientists in Poland begins with the 13th-century Vitello and includes the polymath and astronomer Nicolaus Copernicuswho formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at its center; the publication of Copernicus' book De revolutionibus orbium coelestium On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres just before his death in is considered a major event in porno sesso Simferopol history of science, triggering the Copernican Revolution and making an important contribution to the Scientific Revolution.

After the third partition of Polandno free Polish state existed. The 19th and 20th centuries saw many Polish scientists working abroad. Another notable Polish expatriate scientist porno sesso Simferopol Ignacy Domeyko —89a geologist and mineralogist who lived and worked in South America, in Chile.

Kazimierz Funk —whose name is commonly anglicized as porno sesso Simferopol Funk", was a Polish biochemistgenerally credited with being among the first to formulate porno sesso Simferopol the concept of vitaminswhich he called "vital amines" or "vitamines". In the first half of the 20th century, Poland was a world center of mathematics. An alumnus of the Warsaw School of Mathematics was Antoni Zygmunda shaper of 20th-century mathematical analysis.

Vitello c. Nicolaus Copernicus —polymath and astronomer whose porno sesso Simferopol model of the Solar Systemplacing the Sun rather than the Earth at the centercontributed to the advent porno sesso Simferopol the Scientific Revolution. Michael Sendivogius —chemistry pioneer, who discovered oxygen and developed methods of extracting metals and synthesizing acids and other substances.

Ludwik Zamenhof —ophthalmologist and creator of the international languageEsperanto. Casimir Funk —biochemistcredited with formulating the concept of vitamines. Jan Czochralski —chemist who invented the Czochralski process whose most important application is the growth of large cylindrical ingots of single crystal silicon used in the electronics industry to make semiconductor devices porno sesso Simferopol integrated circuits. Stefan Banach —one of the most influential mathematicians of the 20th century; a principal founder of modern functional analysis.

Tadeusz Reichstein porno sesso Simferopolsucceeded in synthesizing vitamin C in what is now called the Reichstein process and received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Joseph Rotblat —physicist who worked on the Manhattan Projectthen shared with the Pugwash Conferences that he headed, the Nobel Peace Prize "for efforts to diminish the part played porno sesso Simferopol nuclear arms in international affairs and, in the longer run, to eliminate such arms.

Hilary Koprowski —virologist and immunologistand the inventor of porno sesso Simferopol world's first effective live polio vaccine. Leonid Hurwicz —the first economist to recognize the value of game theory and the oldest Nobel Laureatehaving received the prize at the porno sesso Simferopol of Benoit Mandelbrot —recognized for his contribution to the field of fractal geometryas well as developing a theory of "roughness and self-similarity " in nature.

Alfred Tarski —logician and mathematician; known for work on the foundations porno sesso Simferopol modern logicand the formal notion of truthregarded as one of the greatest logicians in history. Aleksander Wolszczan b.

Krzysztof Matyjaszewski b. Marian Rejewski —80a Polish mathematician, in December solved the plugboard-equipped Enigma machineporno sesso Simferopol main cipher device used by Nazi Germany. His work on nuclear fallout was a major contribution toward the ratification of the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. A signatory of the Russell—Einstein Manifestohe was secretary-general of the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs from their founding until He shared, with the Pugwash Conferences, the Nobel Peace Prize for efforts toward nuclear disarmament.

While in the United States, he authored or co-authored over scientific papers and co-edited several scientific journals. Aleksander Wolszczan borna Polish astronomeris the co-discoverer of the first extrasolar planets and pulsar planets.

They employ over 61, scientists and scholars. Another research-and-development institutes are home to some 10, researchers. There are also a number of smaller laboratories. Altogether, these institutions support some 91, scientists and scholars. Other early compositions, such as the melody of Porno sesso Simferopolmay also date back to porno sesso Simferopol period. During the 16th century, mostly two musical groups—both based in Kraków and belonging to the King and Archbishop of Wawel—led the rapid innovation of Polish music.

Diomedes Catoa native-born Italian who lived in Kraków from about the age of five, became one of the most famous lutenists at the court of Porno sesso Simferopol III, and not only imported some of the musical styles from southern Europe, but blended them with native folk music.

Polish composers from this period focused on baroque religious music, concertos for voices, instruments, and basso continuoa tradition that continued into the 18th century. In addition, a tradition of operatic production began in Warsaw inwith a performance of Galatea composer uncertainthe first Italian opera produced outside Italy. Another first, this is the earliest surviving opera written by porno sesso Simferopol woman. The late 17th century and the 18th century saw Poland in sociopolitical decline, which hindered the development of music.

The most important development in this time, however, was the polonaiseporno sesso Simferopol the first distinctively Polish art music. Chopin remains very well known, and is regarded for composing a wide variety of works, including mazurkasnocturneswaltzes and concertos, and using traditional Polish elements in his pieces.

Frédéric Chopinwhose innovations in style, musical form and harmony, and his association of music with nationalism, were influential throughout the Romantic period. Henryk Wieniawskiviolinist and composer. Henryk Góreckibecame a leading figure of the Polish avant-garde porno sesso Simferopol the post-Stalin cultural porno sesso Simferopol and achieved great commercial success.

Polish folk music was collected in the 19th century by Oskar Kolbergas part of porno sesso Simferopol wave of Polish national revival.

Porno sesso Simferopol these bands had a regional touch to their output, the overall sound was a homogenized mixture of Polish styles.

Polish dance music, especially the mazurka and polonaisewere popularized by Frédéric Chopin, and porno sesso Simferopol soon spread across Europe and elsewhere. The polonaise comes from the French word for Polish to identify its origin among the Polish aristocracy and nobility, who had adapted the dance from a slower walking dance called chodzony. Polish literature is the literary tradition of Poland. Most Polish literature has been porno sesso Simferopol in the Polish language, though other languages, used in Poland over the centuries, have also contributed to Polish literary traditions, including LatinGerman, YiddishRuthenianUkrainianBelarusianHungarianSlovakCzechLithuanianand Esperanto.

Almost nothing remains of Polish literature prior to the country's Christianization in Poland's pagan inhabitants certainly possessed an oral literature extending to Slavic songs, legends and beliefs, but early Christian writers did not deem it worthy of mention in the obligatory Latin, and so it has perished.

The first recorded sentence in the Polish language reads: " Day ut ia pobrusa, a ti poziwai " "Let me grind, and you take a rest" — a paraphrase of the Latin " Sine, ut ego etiam molam. The sentence was written within the Latin language chronicle Liber fundationis from between anda history of the Cistercian monastery in HenrykówSilesia.

It was recorded by an abbot known simply as Piotr Peterreferring to an event almost a hundred years earlier. In the early s, one of the first printing houses in Poland was set up by Kasper Straube in Kraków see: spread of porno sesso Simferopol printing press. With the advent of the Renaissancethe Polish language was finally accepted in Poland on an equal footing with Latin. Polish art and culture flourished under the Jagiellonian Dynastyand many foreign poets and writers settled in Poland, bringing new literary trends with them.