PARLIAMO DI SESSO (Q&A ONESTO) // Muriel
Childbirthalso known as labour and deliveryis the ending of pregnancy where one or more babies priode sesso a woman's uterus by passing through the vagina or by Caesarean section. The most common way of priode sesso is a vaginal delivery. Each year, complications from pregnancy and childbirth result in aboutmaternal deathsseven million women have serious long term problems, and 50 million women have negative health outcomes following delivery.
The most prominent sign of labour is strong repetitive uterine contractions. The distress levels reported by labouring women vary widely. They appear to be influenced by fear and anxiety levels, experience priode sesso prior childbirth, cultural ideas of childbirth and pain,   mobility during labour, and the support received during labour. Personal expectations, the amount of support from caregivers, quality of priode sesso caregiver-patient relationship, and involvement in decision-making are more important in women's overall satisfaction with the experience of childbirth than are other factors such as age, socioeconomic priode sesso, ethnicity, preparation, physical environment, pain, immobility, or medical interventions.
Pain in contractions has been described as feeling similar to very strong menstrual cramps. Women are often encouraged to refrain from screaming.
However, moaning priode sesso grunting may be encouraged to priode sesso lessen pain. Crowning may be experienced as an intense stretching and burning. Even women who show little reaction to labour pains, in comparison to other women, show a substantially severe reaction to crowning. Back labour is a term for specific pain occurring in the lower priode sesso, just above the tailboneduring childbirth.
During the later stages of gestation there is an increase in abundance of oxytocinpriode sesso hormone that is known to evoke feelings of contentment, reductions in anxiety, priode sesso feelings of calmness and security around the mate. The act of nursing a child also causes a release of oxytocin. The symptoms normally occur for a few minutes up to few hours each day and they should lessen and disappear within two weeks after delivery.
Priode sesso group therapy has proven effective as a prophylactic treatment for postpartum depression. Humans are bipedal with an erect stance. The erect posture causes the weight of the abdominal contents to thrust on the pelvic floora complex structure which must not only support this weight but allow, in women, three channels to pass through it: the urethrathe vagina and the rectum.
The infant's head and shoulders must go through a specific sequence of maneuvers in order to pass through the ring of the mother's pelvis. Six phases of a typical vertex or cephalic head-first presentation delivery:. Station refers to the relationship of the fetal presenting part priode sesso the level of the ischial spines. Priode sesso the presenting part is at the ischial spines the station is 0 synonymous with engagement. The fetal head may temporarily change shape substantially becoming priode sesso elongated as it moves through the birth canal.
This change in the shape of the fetal head is called molding and is much more prominent in women having their first vaginal delivery. Cervical ripening is the physical and chemical changes in the cervix to prepare it for the stretching that will take place as the fetus moves out of the uterus and into the birth canal.
A scoring system called a Priode sesso score can be used to judge the degree of cervical ripening in priode sesso to predict the timing of labor and delivery of the infant or for women at priode sesso for preterm labor.
It is also used to judge priode sesso a woman priode sesso respond to induction of labor for a postdate pregnancy or other medical reasons.
There are several methods of inducing priode sesso ripening which will allow the uterine contractions to effectively dilate the cervix. Priode sesso order to avail for more uniform terminology, the first stage of labour is divided into "latent" and "active" phases, where the latent phase is sometimes included in the definition of labour,  and priode sesso not. Common signs that labour, commonly spelled as labor, is about to begin may include "lightening".
Lightening is the process of the baby moving down from the rib cage with the head of the baby engaging deep in the pelvis. The pregnant woman may then find breathing easier, since her lungs have more room for expansion, but pressure on her bladder may cause more frequent need to void urinate. Lightening may occur a few weeks or a few hours before labour begins, or even not until priode sesso has begun. Some women also experience an increase in vaginal discharge several days before labour begins when the "mucus plug", a thick plug of mucus that blocks the opening to the uterus, is pushed out into the vagina.
The mucus plug may become dislodged days before labour begins or not until the start of labour. Priode sesso inside the uterus the baby is enclosed in a fluid-filled membrane called the amniotic sac. Shortly before, at priode sesso beginning of, or during labor the sac ruptures.
Once the sac ruptures, termed "the water breaks", the baby is at risk for infection and the mother's medical team will assess the need to induce labor if it has not started within the time they believe to be safe for the infant. Priode sesso women priode sesso known to experience what has been termed the "nesting instinct". Women report a spurt of energy shortly before going into labour. Folklore has long held that most babies are born in the late night or very early morning and recent research has found this to priode sesso correct in the US, but only for babies born at home or on Saturday or Sunday.
All other births are most likely to occur between 8 a. Likewise, births from induced deliveries rose priode sesso the morning hours and peaked at 3 p. The most likely day of the week for a baby's birthday in the US priode sesso Monday, followed by Tuesday, likely related to scheduled priode sesso as well. The latent phase priode sesso generally defined as beginning at the point at which the woman perceives regular uterine contractions. Cervical effacementwhich is the thinning and stretching of the cervixand cervical dilation occur during the closing weeks of pregnancy.
Priode sesso latent phase ends with the onset of the active first stage. The active stage of labour or "active phase of first stage" if the previous phase is termed "latent phase of first stage" has geographically differing definitions. Priode sesso World Health Organization describes the active first stage as "a period of time characterized by regular painful uterine contractions, a substantial degree of cervical effacement and more rapid cervical dilatation from priode sesso cm until full dilatation for first and subsequent labours.
Health care providers may assess a labouring mother's progress in labour by performing a cervical exam to evaluate priode sesso cervical dilation, effacement, and station.
These factors form the Bishop score. The Bishop score can also be used priode sesso a means to predict the success of an induction of labour. During effacement, the cervix becomes incorporated into the lower segment of the uterus. During a contraction, uterine muscles contract causing shortening of the upper segment and drawing upwards of the lower segment, in a gradual expulsive motion.
A standard duration of the latent priode sesso stage has not been established and can priode sesso widely from one woman to another. However, the duration of active first stage from 5 cm until full cervical dilatation usually does not extend beyond 12 hours in first labours "primiparae"and usually does not extend beyond 10 hours in subsequent labours "multiparae". The median duration of active first stage is four hours in first labours and three hours in second and subsequent labours.
Dystocia of laboralso called "dysfunctional labor" or "failure to progress", is difficult labor or abnormally slow progress of priode sesso, involving progressive cervical dilatation or lack of descent of the fetus. Friedman's Curve, developed inwas for many years used to determine labor dystocia. However, more recent medical research priode sesso that the Friedman curve may not be currently applicable. The expulsion stage begins when the cervix is fully dilated, and priode sesso when the baby is born.
As pressure on the priode sesso increases, women may have the sensation of pelvic pressure and an urge to begin pushing. At the beginning of the normal second stage, the head is fully engaged in the pelvis; the widest diameter of the head has passed below the level of the pelvic inlet. The fetal head then continues descent into the priode sesso, below the pubic arch and out through the vaginal introitus opening.
This is priode sesso by the additional maternal efforts of "bearing down" or pushing. The appearance of the fetal head at the vaginal orifice is termed the "crowning". At this point, the woman will feel an intense burning or stinging sensation. When the amniotic sac has not ruptured during labour or pushing, the infant can be born with the membranes priode sesso. This is referred to as "delivery en caul ". Priode sesso second stage varies from one woman to another. In first labours, priode sesso is usually completed within three hours whereas in subsequent labours, birth is usually completed within two hours.
The period from just after the fetus is expelled until just after the placenta is expelled is called the third stage of labour or the involution stage. Placental expulsion begins as a physiological separation from the wall of the uterus.
The average time from delivery of the baby until complete expulsion of the placenta is estimated to be 10—12 minutes dependent on whether active or expectant management is priode sesso. Placental expulsion can be managed actively or it can be managed expectantly, allowing the placenta to be expelled without medical assistance. Active management is the administration priode sesso a uterotonic drug within one minute of fetal delivery, controlled traction of the umbilical cord and fundal massage after delivery of the placenta, followed by performance of priode sesso massage every 15 minutes for two hours.
Delaying the clamping of the umbilical cord for at least one minute or until it ceases to pulsate, which may take several priode sesso, improves outcomes as long as there is the ability to treat jaundice if it occurs. For many years it was believed that late cord cutting led to priode sesso mother's risk of experiencing significant bleeding after giving priode sesso, called postpartum bleeding.
However a recent review found that delayed cord cutting in healthy full-term infants resulted in early haemoglobin concentration and higher birthweight priode sesso increased iron reserves up to six months after birth with no change in priode sesso rate of postpartum bleeding. Priode sesso "fourth stage of labour" is the period beginning immediately after the birth of a child and extending for about six weeks.
The terms postpartum priode sesso postnatal are often used for this period. The World Health Organization WHO describes the postnatal period priode sesso the most critical and yet the most neglected phase in the lives of mothers and babies; most deaths occur during the postnatal period.
Following the birth, if the mother had an episiotomy or a tearing of the perineumit is stitched. The mother has regular assessments for uterine contraction and fundal height priode sesso bleeding, heart rate and blood pressure, and temperature, for the first 24 hours after birth. The first passing of urine should be priode sesso within six hours. Vaginal discharge, termed "lochia", can be expected priode sesso continue for several weeks; initially bright red, it gradually becomes pink, changing to brown, and finally to yellow or white.
Most authorities suggest the infant be placed in skin-to-skin contact with the mother for 1—2 hours immediately after birth, putting routine cares off until later. Until recently babies born in hospitals were removed from their mothers shortly after birth and brought to the mother only at feeding times. Mothers were told that their newborn would priode sesso safer in the nursery and that the separation would offer the mother more time to rest.
As attitudes began to change, some hospitals offered a "rooming in" option wherein after a period of routine hospital procedures and observation, the infant could be allowed priode sesso share the mother's room. However, more recent information has begun to question the standard practice of removing the newborn immediately postpartum for routine postnatal procedures before being returned to the mother. Beginning aroundsome authorities began to suggest that early skin-to-skin contact placing the naked baby priode sesso the mother's chest may benefit both mother and infant.
Using animal studies that have shown that the intimate contact inherent in skin-to-skin priode sesso promotes neurobehaviors that result in the fulfillment of basic biological needs as a model, recent studies have been done to assess what, if any, advantages may be associated with early skin-to-skin contact for human mothers and their babies. A medical review looked at existing studies and found that early skin-to-skin contact, sometimes called kangaroo careresulted in improved breastfeeding outcomes, cardio-respiratory stability, and a decrease in infant crying.
As ofearly postpartum skin-to-skin contact is endorsed by all major organizations that are responsible for the well-being of infants, including the American Academy of Pediatrics. The WHO suggests priode sesso any initial observations of priode sesso infant can be done while the infant remains close to the mother, saying that even a brief separation before the baby has had its first feed can disturb the bonding process. They further advise frequent skin-to-skin contact as much as possible during priode sesso first days after delivery, especially if it was interrupted for some priode sesso after the delivery.
In many cases and with increasing frequency, childbirth is achieved through induction of labour or caesarean section.