Липецк в цвете 1970-е годы / Lipetsk in colour 1970s
Germany 's military air arms sesso incontri a Lipetsk World War Ithe Luftstreitkräfte of the Army and the Marine-Fliegerabteilung of the Navy had been disbanded in Sesso incontri a Lipetsk as a result of the terms of the Treaty of Versailles which stated that Germany was forbidden to have any air force. During the interwar period, German pilots were trained secretly in violation of the treaty at Lipetsk Air Base.
With the rise of the Nazi Party and the repudiation of the Versailles Treaty, the Luftwaffe's existence was publicly acknowledged on 26 Februaryjust over two weeks before open defiance of the Versailles Treaty through German re-armament and conscription would be announced on 16 March.
Partially as a result of this combat experience, the Luftwaffe had become one of the most sophisticated, technologically advanced, and battle-experienced air forces in the world when World War II broke out in The Luftwaffe also operated Fallschirmjäger paratrooper units. The Luftwaffe proved instrumental in the German victories across Poland and Western Europe in and During the Battle of Britain sesso incontri a Lipetsk, however, despite inflicting severe damage to the RAF 's infrastructure and, during the subsequent Blitzdevastating many British cities, the German air force failed to batter the beleaguered British into submission.
FromAllied bombing campaigns gradually destroyed the Luftwaffe ' s fighter arm. From latethe Luftwaffe used its surplus ground, support and other personnel to raise Luftwaffe Field Divisions. Despite its belated use of advanced turbojet and rocket propelled aircraft for the destruction of Allied bombersthe Luftwaffe was overwhelmed by the Allies' superior numbers and improved tactics, and a lack of trained pilots and aviation fuel.
In Januaryduring the closing stages of the Battle of the Bulgethe Luftwaffe made a last-ditch effort to win air superiorityand met with failure. With rapidly dwindling supplies of petroleum, oil, and lubricants after this campaign, and as part of the entire combined Wehrmacht military forces as a whole, the Luftwaffe ceased to be an effective fighting force.
After the defeat of Germany, the Luftwaffe was disbanded in During World War II, German pilots claimed roughly 70, aerial victories, while over 75, Luftwaffe aircraft were destroyed or significantly damaged. Of these, nearly 40, were lost entirely. The Sesso incontri a Lipetsk had only two commanders-in-chief throughout its history: Hermann Göring and later Generalfeldmarschall Robert Ritter von Greim for the last two weeks of the war. Sesso incontri a Lipetsk Luftwaffe was deeply involved in Nazi war crimes.
By the end of the war, a significant percentage of aircraft production originated in concentration campsan industry employing tens of thousands of prisoners. The Oberkommando der Luftwaffe organized Nazi human experimentationand Luftwaffe ground troops committed massacres in ItalyGreeceand Poland. It was renamed Luftstreitkräfte on 8 Sesso incontri a Lipetsk After the defeat of Germany, the service was dissolved on 8 May under the conditions of the Treaty of Versailleswhich also mandated the destruction of all German military aircraft.
Since the Treaty of Versailles forbade Germany to have an air force, German pilots trained in secret. Initially, civil aviation schools within Germany were used, sesso incontri a Lipetsk only light trainers could be used in order to maintain the façade that the trainees were going to fly with civil airlines such as Deutsche Luft Hansa. To train its pilots sesso incontri a Lipetsk the latest combat aircraft, Germany solicited the help of the Soviet Unionwhich was also isolated in Europe.
A secret training airfield was established at Lipetsk in and operated for approximately nine years using mostly Dutch and Soviet, but also some German, training aircraft before being closed in This base was officially known as 4th squadron of the 40th wing of the Red Army. Hundreds of Luftwaffe pilots and technical personnel visited, studied and were trained at Soviet air force schools in several locations in Central Russia. The first steps towards the Luftwaffe ' s formation were undertaken just months after Adolf Hitler came to power.
The RLM was in charge of development and production of aircraft. Göring's control over all aspects sesso incontri a Lipetsk aviation became absolute. On 25 March the German Air Sports Association absorbed all private and national organizations, while retaining its 'sports' title. On 15 Mayall military aviation organizations in the RLM were merged, forming the Luftwaffe ; its official 'birthday'. Göring played a leading sesso incontri a Lipetsk in the buildup of the Luftwaffe in sesso incontri a Lipetsk, but had little further involvement in the development of the force afterand Milch became the "de facto" minister until The absence of Göring in planning and production matters was fortunate.
Göring had little knowledge of current aviation, had last flown inand had not kept himself informed of latest events. Göring also displayed a lack of understanding of doctrine and technical issues in aerial warfare which he left to others more competent.
The Commander-in-Chief left the organisation and building of the Luftwaffeafterto Erhard Milch. However Göring, as a part of Hitler's inner circle, provided access to financial resources and materiel for rearming and equipping the Luftwaffe. Another prominent figure in German air power construction this time was Helmuth Wilberg. Wilberg later played a large role in the development of German air doctrine.
Having headed the Reichswehr air staff for eight years in the s, Wilberg had considerable experience and was ideal for a senior staff position. However, it was revealed Wilberg had a Jewish mother. For sesso incontri a Lipetsk reason Göring could not have him as CS. Not wishing his talent to go to waste, Göring ensured the racial laws of the Third Reich did not apply to him. Wilberg remained in the air staff, and under Walther Wever helped draw up the Luftwaffe ' s principle doctrinal texts, "The Conduct of the Aerial War" and "Regulation 16".
The German officer Corps was keen to develop strategic bombing capabilities against its enemies. However, economic and geopolitical considerations had to take priority. The German air power theorists continued to develop strategic theories, but emphasis was given to army support, as Germany was a continental power and expected to face ground operations following any declaration of hostilities. For these reasons, between andthe Luftwaffe ' s leadership was primarily concerned with tactical and operational methods.
In aerial terms, the army concept of Truppenführung was an operational concept, as well as sesso incontri a Lipetsk tactical doctrine. Dive bomber units were considered essential to Truppenführungattacking enemy headquarters and lines of communications. Untilthe manual "Directives for the Conduct of the Operational Air War" continued to act as the main guide for German air operations.
The manual directed OKL to sesso incontri a Lipetsk on limited operations not strategic operations : the protection of specific areas and support of the army in combat. With an effective tactical-operational concept,  the German air power theorists needed a strategic doctrine and organisation. Robert Knauss, a serviceman not pilot in the Luftstreitkräfte during World War I, and later an experienced pilot with Lufthansa,  was a prominent theorist of air power.
Knauss promoted the Giulio Douhet theory that air power could win wars alone by destroying enemy industry and breaking enemy morale by "terrorizing the population" of major cities. This advocated attacks on civilians. At this time, Wever conducted war games simulated against France in a bid to establish his theory of a strategic sesso incontri a Lipetsk force that would, he thought, prove decisive by winning the war through the destruction of enemy industry, even though these exercises also included tactical strikes against enemy ground forces and communications.
In the proposal, it concluded, "The mission of the Luftwaffe is to serve these goals. Corum states that under this doctrine, the Luftwaffe leadership rejected the practice of " terror bombing " see Luftwaffe strategic bombing doctrine. Nevertheless, Wever recognised the importance of strategic bombing.
In newly introduced doctrine, The Conduct of the Aerial Air War inWever rejected the theory of Douhet  and outlined five key points to air strategy: . Wever began planning for a strategic bomber force and sought to incorporate strategic bombing into a war strategy. He believed that tactical aircraft should only be used as a step to developing sesso incontri a Lipetsk strategic air force.
In MayWever initiated a seven-year project to develop the so-called " Ural bomber ", which could strike as far as into the heart of the Soviet Union. Inthis design competition led to the Dornier Do 19 and Junkers Ju 89 prototypes, although both were underpowered. However Wever's vision of a "Ural" bomber was never realised,  and his emphasis on strategic aerial operations was lost.
Following the untimely death of Walther Wever in early June in an aviation-related accidentby the late s the Luftwaffe had no clear purpose. The air force was not subordinated to the army support role, and it was not given any particular strategic mission.
German doctrine fell between the two concepts. The Luftwaffe was to be an organization capable of carrying out broad and general support tasks rather than any specific mission. Mainly, this path was chosen to encourage a more flexible use of air power and offer the ground forces the right conditions for a decisive victory. Wever's participation in the construction of the Luftwaffe came to an abrupt end on 3 June when he was killed along with his engineer in a Heinkel He 70 Blitz, ironically on the very day that his "Bomber A" heavy bomber design competition was announced.
After Wever's death Göring began taking more of an interest in the appointment of Luftwaffe staff officers. Despite this Udet helped change the Luftwaffe ' s tactical direction towards fast medium bombers to destroy enemy air power in the battle zone rather than through industrial bombing of its aviation production.
Kesselring and Udet did not get on. During Kesselring's time as CS, —, a power struggle developed between the two as Udet attempted to extend his own power within the Luftwaffe.
Kesselring also had to contend with Göring appointing "yes men" to positions of importance. The failure of the Luftwaffe to progress further sesso incontri a Lipetsk attaining a strategic bombing force was attributable to several reasons. Many in the Luftwaffe command believed medium bombers to be sufficient power to launch strategic bombing operations against Germany's most likely enemies; France, Czechoslovakiaand Poland.
General der Flieger Hellmuth Felmycommander of Luftflotte 2 inwas charged with devising a plan for an air war over the British Isles.
Felmy was convinced that Britain could be defeated through morale bombing. Felmy noted the alleged panic that had broken out in London during the Munich crisisevidence he believed of British weakness. A second reason was technical. German designers had never solved the issues of the Heinkel Sesso incontri a Lipetsk A's design difficulties, brought on by the requirement from its inception on 5 November to have moderate dive bombing capabilities in a meter wingspan aircraft.
In addition, OKL had not foreseen sesso incontri a Lipetsk industrial and military effort strategic bombing would require. By the Luftwaffe was not much better prepared than its enemies to conduct a strategic bombing campaign,  with fatal results during the Battle of Sesso incontri a Lipetsk.
The German rearmament program faced difficulties acquiring sesso incontri a Lipetsk materials. Germany imported most of its essential materials for rebuilding the Luftwaffein particular rubber and aluminium. Petroleum imports were particularly vulnerable to blockade. Germany pushed for synthetic fuel plants, but still failed to meet demands. In Germany imported more fuel than it had at the start of the decade. The development of aircraft was sesso incontri a Lipetsk confined to the production of twin-engined medium bombers that required much less material, manpower and aviation production capacity than Wever's "Ural Bomber".
German industry could build two medium bombers for one heavy bomber and the RLM would not gamble on developing a heavy bomber which would also take time. Göring remarked, "the Führer will not ask how big the bombers there are, but only how many there are. The lack of strategic capability should have been apparent much earlier. The Sudeten Crisis highlighted German unpreparedness to conduct a strategic air war although the British and French were in a much weaker positionand Hitler ordered the Luftwaffe be expanded to five times its earlier size.
In Marchas the Anschluss was taking place, Göring ordered Felmy to investigate the prospect of air raids against Britain. Felmy concluded it was not possible until bases in Belgium and the Netherlands were obtained and the Luftwaffe had heavy bombers.