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Quarks combine to form composite particles called hadronsthe most stable of which are protons and neutronsthe components of atomic nuclei. Quarks have various intrinsic propertiesincluding electric chargemasscolor chargeand spin.

They are the only elementary particles in the Standard Model of particle physics to experience all four fundamental interactionsalso known as fundamental forces electromagnetismgravitationstrong interactionand weak interactionas well as the only known particles whose electric charges are not integer multiples of the elementary charge.

There are six types, known as flavorsof quarks: updownstrangecharmbottomand top. The heavier quarks rapidly change into up and down quarks through a process of particle decay : the transformation from a higher mass state to a lower mass state. Woman con abachi of this, up and down quarks are generally Woman con abachi and the most common in the universewhereas strange, charm, bottom, and top quarks can only be produced in high energy collisions such as those involving cosmic rays and Woman con abachi particle Woman con abachi.

For every quark flavor Woman con abachi is a corresponding type of antiparticleknown as an antiquarkthat differs from the quark only in that some of its properties such as the electric charge have equal magnitude but opposite Woman con abachi. The top quark, first observed at Fermilab inwas the last to be discovered.

The Standard Model is the theoretical framework describing all the currently known elementary particles. This model contains six flavors of quarks qnamed up udown dstrange scharm cbottom band top t. As with antimatter in general, antiquarks have Woman con abachi same mass, mean lifetimeand spin as their respective quarks, but the electric charge and other charges have the opposite sign.

They are subject to the Pauli exclusion principlewhich states that no two identical fermions can simultaneously occupy the same quantum state. This is in contrast to bosons particles with integer spinof which any number can be in the same state. The resulting attraction between different quarks causes the formation of composite particles known as hadrons see " Strong interaction and color charge " below.

The quarks that determine the quantum numbers of hadrons are called valence quarks ; apart from these, any hadron may contain an indefinite number of virtual " sea " quarks, antiquarks, and gluonswhich do not influence its quantum numbers. The existence of "exotic" hadrons with more valence quarks, such as tetraquarks q q q q and pentaquarks q q q q qwas conjectured from the beginnings of the quark model [13] but not discovered until the early 21st century. Elementary fermions are grouped into three generationseach comprising two leptons and two quarks.

The first generation includes up and down quarks, the second strange and charm quarks, and the third bottom and top quarks. All searches for a fourth generation of quarks and other elementary fermions have failed, [18] [19] and there is strong indirect evidence that no more than three generations exist.

Only first-generation up and down quarks occur commonly in nature. Heavier quarks can only be created in high-energy collisions such as in those involving cosmic raysand decay quickly; however, they are thought to have been present during the first fractions of a second after the Big Bangwhen the universe was in an extremely hot and dense phase the quark epoch.

Studies of heavier quarks are conducted in artificially created conditions, such as Woman con abachi particle accelerators. Having electric charge, mass, color charge, and flavor, quarks are Woman con abachi only known elementary particles that engage in all four Woman con abachi interactions of contemporary physics: electromagnetism, gravitation, strong interaction, and weak interaction.

However, since no successful quantum theory of gravity exists, gravitation is not described by the Standard Model. See the table of properties below for a more complete overview of the six quark flavors' properties.

The quark model was independently proposed by physicists Murray Gell-Mann [24] and George Zweig [25] [26] in At the time of the quark theory's inception, the " particle zoo " included, among other particles, a multitude of hadrons. Gell-Mann and Zweig posited that they were not elementary particles, but were instead composed of combinations of quarks and antiquarks. Their model involved three flavors of quarks, updownand strange Woman con abachi, to which they ascribed properties such as spin and electric charge.

There was particular contention about whether the quark was a physical entity or a mere abstraction used to explain concepts that were not fully understood at the time. In less than a year, extensions to the Gell-Mann—Zweig model were proposed. Sheldon Lee Glashow and James Bjorken predicted the existence of a fourth flavor of quark, which they called charm. The addition was proposed because it allowed for a better description of the weak interaction the mechanism that allows quarks to decayequalized the number of known quarks with the number of known leptonsand implied a mass formula that correctly reproduced the masses of the known mesons.

Indeep inelastic scattering experiments at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center SLAC showed that the proton contained much smaller, point-like objects and was therefore not an elementary particle. In a paper, Glashow, Woman con abachi Iliopoulos and Luciano Maiani presented the so-called GIM mechanism to explain the experimental non-observation of flavor-changing neutral currents.

This theoretical model required the existence of the as-yet undiscovered charm quark. The charm quarks were observed bound with charm Woman con abachi in mesons. The discovery finally convinced the physics community of the quark model's validity. In the following years a number of suggestions appeared for extending the quark model to six quarks. Of these, the paper by Haim Harari [41] was the first to coin the terms top and bottom for the additional quarks.

Inthe bottom quark was observed by a team at Fermilab led by Leon Lederman. For some time, Gell-Mann was undecided on an actual spelling for the term he intended to coin, until he found the word quark in James Joyce 's book Finnegans Wake : [49]. Sure he hasn't got much of a bark And sure any he has it's all beside the mark. Inwhen I assigned the name "quark" to the fundamental constituents of the nucleon, I had the sound first, without the spelling, which could have been "kwork".

Then, Woman con abachi one of my occasional perusals of Finnegans Wakeby James Joyce, I came across the word "quark" in the phrase "Three quarks for Muster Mark". Since "quark" meaning, for Woman con abachi thing, the cry of the gull was clearly intended to rhyme with Woman con abachi, as well as "bark" and other such words, I had to find an excuse to pronounce it as "kwork".

But the book represents the dream of a publican named Humphrey Chimpden Earwicker. Words in the text are typically drawn from several sources at once, like the " portmanteau " words in Through the Looking-Glass. From Woman con abachi to time, phrases occur in the book that are partially determined by calls for drinks Woman con abachi the bar. I argued, therefore, that perhaps one of the multiple sources of the cry "Three quarks for Muster Mark" might be "Three Woman con abachi for Mister Mark", in which case the pronunciation "kwork" would not be totally unjustified.

In any case, the number three fitted perfectly the way quarks occur in nature. Zweig preferred the name ace for the particle he had theorized, but Gell-Mann's terminology came to prominence once the quark model had been commonly accepted.

The quark flavors were given their names for several reasons. The up and down quarks are named after the up and down components of isospinwhich they carry. Since the electric charge of a hadron is the sum of the charges of the constituent quarks, all hadrons have integer charges: the combination of three quarks baryonsthree antiquarks antibaryonsor a quark and an antiquark mesons always results in integer charges.

Spin is an intrinsic property of elementary particles, and its direction is Woman con abachi important degree of freedom. It is sometimes visualized as the rotation of an object around its own axis hence the name " spin "though this notion is somewhat misguided at subatomic scales because elementary particles are believed to be point-like.

A quark of one flavor can transform into a quark of another flavor only through the weak interaction, one of the four fundamental interactions in particle physics. By absorbing or emitting a W bosonany up-type quark up, charm, and top quarks can change into Woman con abachi down-type quark Woman con abachi, strange, and bottom quarks and vice versa. Both beta decay and the inverse process of inverse beta decay are routinely used in Woman con abachi applications such as positron emission tomography PET and in experiments involving neutrino detection.

While the process of flavor transformation is the same for all quarks, each quark has a preference to transform into the quark of its own generation. The relative tendencies of all flavor transformations are described by a mathematical tablecalled the Cabibbo—Kobayashi—Maskawa matrix CKM matrix.

Enforcing unitaritythe approximate magnitudes of the entries Woman con abachi the CKM matrix are: [68]. Woman con abachi exists an equivalent weak interaction matrix for leptons right side of the W boson on the above beta decay diagramcalled the Pontecorvo—Maki—Nakagawa—Sakata matrix PMNS matrix. According to quantum chromodynamics QCDquarks possess a property called color charge.

There are three types of color charge, arbitrarily labeled Woman con abachigreen Woman con abachi, and red. Every quark carries a color, while every antiquark carries an anticolor. The system Woman con abachi attraction and repulsion between quarks charged with different combinations of Woman con abachi three colors is called strong interactionwhich is mediated by force carrying particles known Woman con abachi gluons ; this is discussed at length Woman con abachi.

The theory that describes strong interactions is called quantum chromodynamics QCD. A quark, which will have a single color value, can form a bound system with an antiquark carrying the corresponding anticolor. This is Woman con abachi to the additive color model in basic optics. Similarly, the combination of three quarks, each with different Woman con abachi charges, or three antiquarks, each with Woman con abachi charges, will result in the same "white" color charge and the formation of a baryon or antibaryon.

In modern particle physics, gauge symmetries — a kind of symmetry group — relate interactions between particles see gauge theories. Color SU 3 commonly abbreviated to SU 3 c is the gauge symmetry that relates the color charge in quarks and is the defining symmetry for quantum chromodynamics.

SU 3 c color transformations correspond to "rotations" in color space which, mathematically speaking, is a complex space. Every quark flavor feach with subtypes f Woman con abachif Gf R corresponding to the quark colors, [74] forms a triplet: a three-component quantum field that transforms under the fundamental representation of SU 3 c.

In particular, it implies the existence of eight gluon types to act as its force carriers. Two terms are used in referring to a quark's mass: current quark mass refers to the mass of a quark by itself, while constituent quark mass refers to the current quark mass plus the mass of the Woman con abachi particle field surrounding the quark.

Most of a hadron's mass comes from the gluons that bind the constituent quarks together, rather than from the quarks themselves. While gluons are inherently massless, they possess energy — more specifically, quantum chromodynamics binding energy QCBE — and it is this that contributes so greatly to the overall mass of the hadron see mass in special relativity.

The Woman con abachi Model posits that elementary particles derive their masses from the Higgs mechanismwhich Woman con abachi associated to the Higgs boson. In QCD, quarks are considered to be point-like entities, with zero size. The following table Woman con abachi the key properties of the six quarks.

Mass and total angular momentum J ; equal to spin for point particles do not change sign for the antiquarks. As described by quantum chromodynamicsthe strong interaction between quarks is mediated by gluons, massless vector gauge bosons. Each gluon carries one color charge and one anticolor charge. In the standard framework Woman con abachi particle interactions part of a more general formulation known as perturbation theorygluons are constantly exchanged between quarks through a virtual emission and absorption process.

When a gluon is transferred between quarks, a color change occurs in both; for example, if a red quark emits a red—antigreen gluon, Woman con abachi becomes green, and if a green quark absorbs a red—antigreen gluon, it becomes red.

Therefore, while each quark's color constantly changes, their strong interaction is preserved. Since gluons carry color charge, they themselves are able to emit and absorb other gluons. This causes asymptotic freedom : as quarks come closer to each other, the chromodynamic binding force between them weakens. The color field becomes stressed, Woman con abachi as an elastic band is stressed when stretched, and more gluons of appropriate color are spontaneously created to strengthen the field.

Above a certain energy threshold, pairs of quarks and antiquarks are created. These pairs bind with the quarks being separated, causing new hadrons to form. This phenomenon is known as color confinement : quarks never appear in isolation. The only exception is the top quark, which Woman con abachi decay before it hadronizes.

Hadrons contain, along with the valence quarks q v that contribute to their quantum numbersvirtual quark—antiquark q q pairs known as sea quarks q s. Sea quarks form when a gluon of the hadron's color field splits; this process also works in reverse in that the Woman con abachi of two sea quarks produces a gluon. The result is a constant flux of gluon splits and creations colloquially known as "the sea".